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 RadioShack Consumer Electronics Glossary: G

G:
Audio, Video, Communications: see Gain.
Measurements: see Giga- (G-).
 
Gain (G)
Audio, DIY, Video, Communications: The amount of increase in voltage, current and/or power provided to the signal by a device or amplifier. Gain is expressed as a ratio of the amplifier output value to the corresponding amplifier input value.
 
Gain, Unity
Audio, Communications: A setting or device that does not amplify or attenuate the audio signal.
 
Gale
Weather: On the beaufort wind scale, a wind with speeds from 28 to 55 knots (32 to 63 miles per hour). For marine interests, it can be categorized as a moderate gale (28 to 33 knots), a fresh gale (34 to 40 knots), a strong gale (41 to 47 knots), or a whole gale (48 to 55 knots). In 1964, the world meteorological organization defined the categories as near gale (28 to 33 knots), gale (34 to 40 knots), strong gale (41 to 47 knots), and storm (48 to 55 knots).
 
Gale Warning
Weather: A warning for marine interests for impending winds from 28 to 47 knots (32 to 54 miles per hour).
 
Gang
Electronics: A potentiometer or other component that has two or more controls coupled together so that they are operated simultaneously.
 
Gauss
Measurement: Cgs unit for magnetic flux; equal to the oersted, (statvolt/cm) and (dyne/esu).
 
General Packet Radio Service: see GPRS.
 
Geosynchronous
Satellite: A satellite orbit that maintains a constant position relative to the earth.
 
Ghosting
Video: A video reception problem (occurring with analog video signals) characterized by multiple or faint images.
GHz
Acronym: Gigahertz, or 1 billion hertz (cycles per second).
 
Gi-: see gibi- (Gi-).
 
gibi- ( Gi-) 
Measurement, Computers: New SI / Metric unit of binary measurement, not yet fully adopted, equal to 230 or 1,073,741,824.
 
GIF
Acronym: Graphics Interchange Format
Digital Video: A graphic file format limited to 256 colors that is used mainly for web graphics or small animated files.
 
Giga
Measurement: SI / Metric unit of decimal measurement, equal to 109 or 1,000,000,000.
Measurement, Computers: Unit of binary measurement, equal to 230 or 1, 073, 741, 824.
 
GLI
Acronym: Ground Loop Isolation, or Ground Loop Isolator
Electronics: A device placed in-line with an audio or video connection in order to eliminate AC "hum" due to a ground loop.
 
Global Positioning System: see GPS.
 
GMRS
Acronym: General Mobile Radio Service
Communications: A land-based mobile radio service established by the FCC to be licensed to persons for short-distance two-way communications between the licensee and his/her immediate family members. Each licensee manages a system consisting of one or more stations.
 
GMT
Acronym: Greenwich Mean Time or Greenwich Meridian Time
Measurement: The standard by which all world time is set. This was done at the 1884 International Convention at Washington DC, USA, which designated the Prime Meridian (Zero Longitude) as running through Greenwich. Additional information is available at GreenwichMeanTime.com.
 
Gopher
Internet: A pre-WorldWideWeb Internet server system that presented the server's contents as a hierarchal file list. Named for the school mascot at the University of Minnesota, where it was developed. See Archie, Jughead and Veronica.
 
GPRS
Acronym: General Packet Radio Service
Telephony: An extension to the GSM standard to include packet data services.
 
GPS
Acronym: Global Positioning Satellite, or Global Positioning System
GPS: Either the global navigation system based on 24 or more satellites orbiting the earth at an altitude of 12,000 statue miles and providing very precise, worldwide positioning and navigation information 24 hours a day, in any weather, or the devices designed to receive and display this information. The system is also called the NAVSTAR system.
 
Gradation
Digital Video: A smooth transition between black and white, one color and another, or color and no color.
 
Gray Level
Digital Video: The brightness of a pixel.
 
Gray Scale
Digital Video: Refers to an image that contains shades of gray as well as black and white, but no other colors.
 
Greenwich Mean Time: see GMT
 
Ground
DIY, Electronics: A reference point connected to the earth or assumed to be at zero potential with respect to the earth.
 
Ground Balance:
Metal Detectors: A mode of operation in which specialized circuitry can be adjusted to ignore the masking effect that iron ground minerals have over metal targets.
 
Ground Balance - Factory Preset
Metal Detectors: A feature that eliminates the manual ground balance control and its adjustment from the operator's setup procedure. This adjustment is performed internally by the factory to optimize operation over an average range of nonconductive soils.
 
Ground Balance - Manual Adjusted
Metal Detectors: A feature requiring a manual control adjustment procedure to neutralize the effects of negative minerals in the search matrix.
 
Ground Balance - Self Adjusting
Metal Detectors: A feature that senses change in ground mineral content and continuously readjusts the ground balance while in operation. Sometimes called Ground Tracking or Automatic Ground Balance.
 
Ground, Electrical
Electronics: The common return path for electric current.
 
Ground Filter
Metal Detectors: Complex circuitry found in motion-type detectors that separates mineral signals from metal signals, allowing the metal signal to be further processed by the discrimination circuitry.
 
Ground Fog: see Fog, Ground.
 
Grounding
Cables, Communications, Electronics: The connection of an antenna or other cable (intentionally or accidentally) to the earth in order to provide a safe path for static discharge or lightning so that it does not feed into the connected equipment.
 
Ground Loop
Electronics, Audio, Video: An unwanted current that flows in a conductor between two points that are at different potentials. It usually occurs in a device that is connected to several AC devices (such as an equalizer or a piece of test equipment), creating an AC "hum". In video devices, this can appear as a bar rolling from top to bottom; in audio devices, it appears as an audible hum. It can be eliminated by connected all audio/video equipment to the same ground, or by using GLI's (Ground Loop Isolators).
 
Ground, Mineralized
Metal Detectors: Any soil that contains conductive or non-conductive components.
 
Ground, Negative
Metal Detectors: Soil that contains non-conductive minerals that have a negative or nulling effect on air-tuned threshold.
 
Ground, Neutral
Metal Detectors: Non-mineralized soil that lacks non-conductive or conductive mineral properties.
 
Ground, Positive
Metal Detectors: Soil that contains conductive minerals or moist salts that have a positive or upward effect on an air-tuned threshold.
 
Group Call
Telephony: A call to a group of mobile cellular units, as opposed to a single mobile cellular unit.
 
GSM
Acronym: Global System for Mobiles
Telephony: A TDMA standard with 8 users per channel, GSM is the European digital cellular standard.
 
Guide Plus+
Video: A feature on VCR's that provides an on-screen channel guide.
 
Gust
Weather: A sudden significant increase in or rapid fluctuations of wind speed. Peak wind must reach at least 16 knots (18 miles per hour) and the variation between peaks and lulls is at least 10 knots (11.5 miles per hour). The duration is usually less twenty seconds.

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